the name integrative medicine and health sciences reflects the curriculum’s focus on integrating complementary medical practices and the modern scientific advances in biomedicine.
the goals of this program are to help students understand and appreciate the principles and philosophies of globally diverse medical systems, to provide skills and foundational knowledge to critically evaluate the various modalities, and to prepare them for advanced education toward careers in clinical care, research, administration, or regulatory affairs and policy related to complementary and integrative medicine. our students explore commonly employed complementary and integrative medicine (cim) modalities and are encouraged to adopt an evidence-based approach in examining and evaluating the mechanisms underlying their efficacy.
a review was undertaken of research to identify empirical research papers reporting on cm education published between 2005 and 17. the search was conducted in may 2017 and included the search of pubmed and ebsco (cinahl, medline, amed) for search terms embracing cm and education. alongside these general educational challenges, faculty resistance to change, the digital divide between students, and between students and faculty, and online readiness for study has been a focus of recent research and discourse in health education [33,34,35,36]. because of the enormous number of hits using the ebsco database, and based on this article a revised search method was undertaken for the ebsco search. papers written in english, presenting original empirical research data, related to courses where graduates receive a qualification in a cm to a standard accepted by those professions and reporting on the prevalence or nature of the education of cm practitioners in some way were included in the review. a similar 2009 study focused on the demographics, satisfaction, challenges and expectations of homeopathy students, teachers and school administrators in north america. two identified papers focused on teaching aspects of practitioner communication skills and the integration of complementary and conventional medicine in cm schools. meanwhile, the need for schools to adopt research literacy and evidence based practice competencies was the focus of three papers. cm student’s preferred learning methods are often based on levels of computer skills and experience, their current use of computers as an educational tool, and attitudes regarding the role of computers in medical education according to a cross sectional survey study from a 27-item questionnaire distributed to 1–4-year osteopathic medical students in the us . firstly, given the growing popularity of cm and as a consequence the growth in cm education, there is very sporadic coverage of research in the cm education field. in particular, the ongoing absence of strategy in cm education research ensures a gap in the available knowledge and contributes to uncertainty for cm education leaders, policy makers and other health professionals as to the needs of employers and the market . a broader knowledge of how health services education informs cm education, the degree to which research and evidence in health services education can be scaled to cm education , and how the foundational sciences are taught in cm institutions is also required. whether this is due to a perception amongst cm-specific or health professional education journals that research in cm education falls outside of their relative scope and prefer to focus on clinical questions or the researchers are not targeting these other journals is not clear. use and acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine among the general population and medical personnel: a systematic review. distinguishing between complementary and alternative medicine and integrative medicine delivery: the united kingdom joins world leaders in professional integrative medicine education. a narrative review and synthesis of the literature from health policy, medicine and nursing.
cornelius s. the challenges of learner-centered teaching in virtual classrooms. setting the stage for teaching and learning in american higher education: making the case for faculty development. complementary and alternative medicine in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a survey of korean medical schools. routledge; 2014. buchan s, shakeel m, trinidade a, buchan d, ah-see k. the use of complementary and alternative medicine by nurses. association for the advancement of computing in education (aace); 2014. pp 72–76. mccabe p. education in naturopathy and western herbal medicine in australia: results of a survey of education providers. grace s, vemulpad s, beirman r. training in and use of diagnostic techniques among cam practitioners: an australian study. schwartz j. faculty perception of and resistance to online education in the fields of acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy. 2013;13:15. mills e, hollyer t, saranchuk r, wilson k. teaching evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (ebcam); changing behaviours in the face of reticence: a cross-over trial. melchart d, worku f, linde k, wagner h. the university project münchener modell for the integration of naturopathy into research and teaching at the ludwig-maximilian university in munich. academic collaborative for integrative health (acih); 2017. rosenthal bl, a. the extent of interprofessional education in the clinical training of integrated health and medicine students: a survey of educational institutions. a survey of undergraduate medical students’ experiences and attitudes. adams j, barbery g, lui c-w. complementary and alternative medicine use for headache and migraine: a critical review of the literature. the research on which this paper is based was conducted as part of the authors phd at the faculty of health university of technology sydney, and part of a broader research piece exploring cm education in the us and australia. we are grateful to the endeavour college of natural health and national university of natural medicine for their time and commitment to the research in their profession.
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