medicinal plants have been widely used to treat a variety of infectious and non-infectious ailments. medicinal plants have been used throughout the world, however, their wide usage had been limited to china, india, japan, pakistan, sri lanka, thailand and a number of african countries. moreover, hiv/aids was selected as priority for future research and development in the area of medicinal plants in africa. none of the six potential antiviral medicinal plants tested in this study inhibited integration step. as rt plays a major role in controlling viral infectivity and replication, in the past, several reports have linked medicinal plants capability to inhibit rt activity an indirect measurement of anti-hiv effect (fu et al., 2006, kostova, 2006, woradulayapinij et al., 2005).
the dhbv system has been used for screening anti-hbv effect of various medicinal plants. a study reviewed the beneficial and adverse effects of herbal preparations used for the treatment of viral hepatitis in the cochrane collaboration, medline, embase, and biosis databases. screening programs aimed at the identification of anti-hcv medicinal plants are ongoing, particularly due to the prevalence of infection in the resource poor countries and lack of good vaccine. a clever usage of plants is the production of vaccines and protein-based therapeutics. there are other issues to be resolved before the translational usage of medicinal plants in the developed world.
thus, the antiviral medicinal plants and the isolated bioactive compounds may be considered for further advanced investigations with the aim of the development of effective and affordable antiviral drugs. this is a complete loss of time, money and efforts. the focus of this review was on potential antiviral metabolites indigenous to and cultivated in bangladesh. methanolic extract of the leaves of this medicinal plant has been reported for inhibitory activities against influenza and herpes simplex virus (hsv). this plant is a rich source of total alkaloids having remarkable anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. coumestan is a phytosterol found in this plant which has been reported for excellent inhibiting activity against ns5b protein of hcv. a study demonstrated that essential oil extracted from the rhizomes of this plant has inhibitory activity against hav, hsv-i, and cvb. two major compounds such as (+)-catechin and protocatechuic acid have been isolated from the bark of this plant. the genus, ocimum is a broad member of lamiaceae family which are found everywhere in bangladesh and known as “the medicinal herb for all disease”. this medicinal plant has a lot of medicinal properties and so, has been used for health management from ancient time in folklore, ayurvedic, and unani medicinal systems. moreover, “neem capsule” is under clinical trial for prophylaxis and prevention of covid-19 infection (nesari et al., 2021). rosa centifolia l., a flowering plant of rosaceae family, is found in bangladesh and known as cabbage rose. essential oils extracted from the fruits of these medicinal plants have been reported for having inhibitory potential to hav (battistini et al., 2019). zingiber officinale roscoe belongs to the family zingiberaceae which is commonly known as ginger and cultivated in bangladesh as a prime spice of cooking. search of antiviral drugs from plant sources is crucial due to fatality and repeated mutations of viruses. the genome of this virus encodes structural, accessory, and non-structural proteins. after endocytosis, the genomic rna gets translated to nonfunctional polypeptides which are cleaved to functional proteins via proteolytic activity of mpro/3clpro and plpro enzymes. numerous bioactive metabolites have been tested and reported for having efficacy to block the steps of multiplications of this virus (figure 2). the multiplication process of this virus is distinctive which involves complex and sequential stages (grimm et al., 2011). in this review, we have summarized the overview of 46 antiviral medicinal plants from 25 families cultivated and originated in bangladesh. in vitro study of the antiviral activity of zingiber officinale. phytochemical and nutrient compositions of the leaves of ocimum canum sims. brazilian essential oils as source for the discovery of new anti-covid-19 drug: a review guided by in silico study. antiviral activity of essential oils against hepatitis a virus in soft fruits. antiviral effect of phytochemicals from medicinal plants: applications and drug delivery strategies. identification of volatile compounds in essential oil and extracts of ocimum micranthum willd leaves using gc/ms.
in vitro inhibitory activity of justicia adhatoda extracts against influenza virus infection and hemagglutination. anti-hbv effect of individual traditional chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review. microscopic studies, phytochemical and biological screenings of ocimum canum. identification of alkaloids from justicia adhatoda as potent sars cov-2 main protease inhibitors: an in silico perspective. current targets and drug candidates for prevention and treatment of sars-cov-2 (covid-19) infection. ethnopharmacology in drug discovery: an analysis of its role and potential contribution. medicinal plants: a repository of antiviral metabolites. experimental and clinical pharmacology of andrographis paniculata and its major bioactive phytoconstituent andrographolide. identification and characterization of coumestans as novel hcv ns5b polymerase inhibitors. in vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes. inhibition of the epstein-barr virus lytic cycle by andrographolide. and ocimum gratissimum l. cultivated in the north of brazil. anti-herpes virus activities of achyranthes aspera: an indian ethnomedicine, and its triterpene acid. antimicrobial, anthelmintic, and antiviral activity of plants traditionally used for treating infectious disease in the similipal biosphere reserve, odisha, india. anti-hiv-1 integrase activity and molecular docking of compounds from albizia procera bark. antiviral medicinal herbs and phytochemicals. eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotypes of essential oil of species ocimum gratissimum l. and ocimum campechianum mill. antiviral activities and cytotoxicity assay of seed extracts of piper longum and piper nigrum on human cell lines. chemical compositions, antiviral and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils. chemical composition, antiviral and cytotoxic activities of essential oil from cyperus rotundus growing in egypt: evidence from chemometrics analysis. evaluation of antiviral activities of four local malaysian phyllanthus species against herpes simplex viruses and possible antiviral target. antiviral activity of the indian medicinal plant extract swertia chirata against herpes simplex viruses: a study by iin-vvitro and molecular approach. andrographolide prevents ev-d68 replication by inhibiting the acidification of virus-containing endocytic vesicles. effect of alcohol extract of acanthus ilicifolius l. on anti-duck hepatitis b virus and protection of liver. a review of the antiviral role of green tea catechins. phenolic compounds from the flowers of bombax malabaricum and their antioxidant and antiviral activities. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2014.11.011 citation: bachar sc, mazumder k, bachar r, aktar a and al mahtab m (2021) a review of medicinal plants with antiviral activity available in bangladesh and mechanistic insight into their bioactive metabolites on sars-cov-2, hiv and hbv.
silybum marianum (also known as “milk thistle” or “silymarin”) and its flavonolignans have been demonstrated to exert anti-hcv activity in vitro,[55,56] and table 1 ; olive leaf extract (ole), inhibits acute infection and cell-to-cell transmission of hiv-1 ; vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), trichilia glabra l. researchers have reported that numerous medicinal plants with antiviral activities, such as andrographis paniculata, lindera chunii, dioscorea, strongest natural antiviral, strongest natural antiviral, best antiviral supplements, antiviral supplements, foods with antiviral properties.
four of 15 active drugs identified from the cell-based assay—mefloquine, nelfinavir, salinomycin, and thioguanine—were selected to evaluate lycoris radiata, artemisia annua, pyrrosia lingua, lindera aggregate, and the compound lycorine (from l. radiata) showed moderate to potent antiviral activity antiviral, glycyrrhiza spp., sambucus spp. fruit, allium sativum, pelargonium sidoides, geranium sanguineum, populus spp., tilia spp.,, antiviral herbs in ayurveda, antiviral herbs for lungs, antiviral fruits, strongest antiviral herbs for herpes.
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