however, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. the use of traditional medicine and medicinal plants in most developing countries, as a normative basis for the maintenance of good health, has been widely observed (unesco, 1996). some 50 to 100 million nomads have been estimated to be present in the world, and 90 per cent of these live in africa or asia. however, the optimism that communicable diseases would be less of a health problem in the developed countries appears to have been misplaced with the appearance of new infectious diseases and re-emergence of older disease agents. the whole-population strategy targets the community as a whole to control the occurrence of new diseases in the population. however, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. the barks and seeds of saraca were mashed and taken in the raw state as prevention for irregular menstruation and menorrhagia. the extract of the bark of pygeum africanum (prunus africana) has been used in europe as a prevention and treatment of prostate disorders including benign prostatic hypertrophy (bph).
they reported a significant reduction in tumour incidence (33%), tumour multiplicity (42%), and increase in survival (34%) upon administration of the aqueous extract to ndea-abused mice. the ethanol extract of grapes inhibited tumour promotion by dmba/tpa in mouse skin (alam et al., 2002). choriocarcinoma is a malignant, trophoblastic and aggressive cancer of the placenta. the protective and/or preventive activity of various spices against various cancers and gastric ulcer has been reviewed by sumbul et al. all the data indicated the potential of its clinical application for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer metastasis. clinical and preclinical data on some medicinal plants used as dietary supplements show that they may be useful in the strategies to reduce the prevalence and mortality of chd either in the general population or in the subsets of individuals at high risk. according to the recent who monograph for guggul, the plant is useful for the treatment of hyperlipideamia and hypercholesterolemia. given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse effects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. most african countries, for example, hinge their health care system on the primary health care (phc) strategy and it is necessary to incorporate the use of medicinal plants into all the components of phc in these countries.
in this study, we review promising candidates of edible and medicinal plants for the prevention and management of covid-19. due to the homology in epidemiology, genomic, and pathogenesis of the sars-cov and sars-cov-2, the effect of edible and medicinal plants on sars may also assist with managing covid-19. the results are provided in figure 2. figure 2. the potential pathogenesis of covid-19 and its pathophysiology. many herbal plants are multi-target and multi-component pattern, which are promising for the prevention and management of covid-19 in the future. a variety of vegetables and herbal plants has been tested against sars-cov. ), and an extract of rhizoma cibotii, all inhibited sars-cov replication in vero cells with the sars-cov strain infection model (panyod et al., 2020). the possible mechanisms underlying the action of natural products in treating covid-19 mainly act on sars-cov-2, anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and organ protection. research involved the high-throughput molecular docking of 12,541 compounds from the tcmsp database with ace2 and the main protease 3clpro (gao et al., 2020). kaempferol and some of its glycosides significantly decrease the release of no and tnf-α in lps-treated raw 264.7 cells (tran et al., 2009). geniposide exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating the expression of tlr4, thus affecting the downstream nf-κb and mapk signaling pathways (song et al., 2014). the increased il-6 in covid-19 patients can bind to the glycoprotein (gp130) receptor and il-6 receptor, thereby facilitating the downstream activation of jak/stat signaling (catanzaro et al., 2020; zhang et al., 2020). resveratrol suppressed lps-induced inflammation through the suppression of nf-κb and jak/stat signaling pathways (filardo et al., 2020). it can significantly inhibit the level of s1p as well as the expression of s1pr1 and sphk1 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (flss) (sun et al., 2020b). in this study, we reviewed the anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory effects of the compounds predicted to possess a strong ability to target sars-cov-2 in experimental studies. thymoquinone treatment modulates the nrf2/ho-1 signaling pathway and abrogates the inflammatory response in an animal model of lung fibrosis. immune response to sars‐cov‐2 and mechanisms of immunopathological changes in covid‐19immune response to sars-cov-2 and mechanisms of immunopathological changes in covid-19. covid-19 and the raas-a potential role for angiotensin ii?. jun)the cytokine storm in covid-19: an overview of the involvement of the chemokine/chemokine-receptor system. may 30)use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of covid-19 requiring admission to hospital: a case-population study. immune-inflammatory parameters in covid-19 cases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. immune response, inflammation, and the clinical spectrum of covid-19.
nf-κb and the immune response. the cytokine storm and covid-19. jul 18)contribution of monocytes and macrophages to the local tissue inflammation and cytokine storm in covid-19: lessons from sars and mers, and potential therapeutic interventions. hepatoprotective effects of chinese medicinal herbs: a focus on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. the role played by traditional chinese medicine in preventing and treating covid-19 in china. potential role of ace2 in coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) prevention and management. a review of historical classics, research evidence and current prevention programs. the natural history, pathobiology, and clinical manifestations of sars-cov-2 infections. may 30)clinical, molecular, and epidemiological characterization of the sars-cov-2 virus and the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), a comprehensive literature review. evaluation of the anti-inflammatory capacity of beta-sitosterol in rodent assays. emerging biology of sphingosine-1-phosphate: its role in pathogenesis and therapyapr). the role of jak-stat signaling pathway and its regulators in the fate of t helper cells. jun)quercetin and egcg exhibit chemopreventive effects in cholangiocarcinoma cells via suppression of jak/stat signaling pathway. isorhamnetin, the active constituent of a chinese herb hippophae rhamnoides l, is a potent suppressor of dendritic-cell maturation and trafficking. the underlying changes and predicting role of peripheral blood inflammatory cells in severe covid-19 patients: a sentinel?. jun)effect of ginger constituents and synthetic analogues on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme in intact cells. the effects of nigella sativa (ns), anthemis hyalina (ah) and citrus sinensis (cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of trp genes family. baicalin exerts anti-airway inflammation and anti-remodelling effects in severe stage rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. jul)therapeutic effect of the natural compounds baicalein and baicalin on autoimmune diseases. sphingosine-1-phosphate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway contributes to baicalein-mediated inhibition of dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice. the use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. plants synthesize hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defense against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals. herbal supplements may contain entire plants or plant parts. herbal supplements come in all forms: dried, chopped, powdered, capsule, or liquid, and can be used with the discovery of america, materia medica was enriched with a large number of new medicinal plants: cinchona, ipecacuanha, cacao, ratanhia, a medicinal plant is any plant which, in one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for, 100 medicinal plants and their uses, herbal medicine, herbal medicine, herbal medicines and their uses with pictures, diseases cured by medicinal plants.
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