thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non‐stimulatory or a combination thereof. binding of agonists to β‐3 adrenergic receptors triggers thermogenesis and results in the oxidation of fatty acids and production of energy (inchiosa, 2011; mund and fishman, 2013). uncoupling of the respiratory chain in mitochondria is recognized as the main event leading to thermogenesis and as such is targeted in pharmacologic and nutritional intervention to upregulate thermogenesis. the ability of ephedrine to enhance energy expenditure and promote weight loss has been demonstrated in a number of human studies (astrup, 2000; diepvens et al., 2007). inhibition of the a1 receptor by caffeine results in activation of adenylate cyclase with a subsequent increase in camp and in the activity of protein kinase a, the latter being associated with stimulation of the cns. typical doses of p‐synephrine (as advantra z and kinetiq™) are in the range of 30–50 mg two to three times daily (kaats et al., 2013). as a consequence, the data indicate that the thermogenic effects of green tea and green tea extracts are due to a combination of mechanisms associated with caffeine and catechins.
a supporting mechanism that contributes to the weight management effects is the inhibition of the enzyme pancreatic lipase, which results in a decrease in lipid absorption (narita et al., 2012). the carotenoids with provitamin a activity had the most potential to affect the expression of ucp1 and enhance thermogenesis. fourteen‐day treatment with daidzein (50 mg/kg) of obese rats on a high‐fat diet reduced weight gain and fat content in the liver, accompanied by high leptin and low adiponectin levels in plasma. in an in vivo study, a mixture of flavan‐3‐ols administered to mice significantly enhanced systemic energy expenditure, as evidenced by an accompanying increase in the type of gene expression responsible for thermogenesis and lipolysis. administration of punicic acid, the primary fatty acid present in pomegranate seed oil, has been shown to significantly reduce white adipose tissue in rats and suppress the production and secretion of triglycerides and apolipoprotein b100 (arao et al., 2004a, 2004b). finally, comparing effects of thermogenic botanicals to the effects of exercise induced thermogenesis are appropriate because ultimately those two different approaches trigger the similar biochemical events leading to increases in thermogenesis and energy expenditure. to date, proper clinical research proving or disproving the usefulness of most thermogenic botanicals in weight management is lacking (bahmani et al., 2015).
to make a long story short, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine. a collection of scientific papers have explored the connection between lion’s mane and brain activity. this fungus grows in large, chunky discs on the side of conifer trees. in fact, it is not clear exactly which chaga chemicals deliver a lift of mood and a boost of stamina. coffee remains one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. l-theanine is structurally similar to the amino acids: glutamate and glutamine. the improvements in learning and memory are attributed to the regulation of nmda related long term potentiation. coconut oil is unique in that – it has a very amount of saturated fats. the leaves and stems of gotu kola have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. the ‘cola’ in the name is a tip of the hat to the kola nut ingredient. the plant is now widely used as a means to reduce mental fatigue. guarana is a climbing plant in the maple family.
the leaves of the yerba mate plant (ilex paraguariensis) are chopped up, steeped in hot water and drank as a hot beverage. this is the same plant that ends up in our breakfast cereals and granola bars. the ashwagandha plant is used by practitioners of ayurvedic medicine to address a range of conditions. this is a tip of the hat to brahma, the creator god of hinduism. a pde4 inhibitor will prevent the breakdown of camp. for the sake of this article, i am focusing on american ginseng (panax quiquefolius), as this species is used to reduce fatigue and improve mental focus. in general, i’m skeptical when i hear that a plant can help all sorts of problems with the human body. in this article, i also discuss the different factors to consider when choosing a maca supplement. we seem to understand some of the biology that leads to this neurodegenerative disease, however, it is clear we don’t understand all of the cell biology. this is normal, however, there seems to be a correlation between clumping of beta-amyloid plaques and the onset of alzheimer’s disease. “huperzine a in the treatment of alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: a meta-analysis of natural brain stimulants.” evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine 2014 (2014). “effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.” lipids 44.7 (2009): 593-601.
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